Estimates are advertising, marketing or promotion figures based on complete, actual data for the year. Estimates are not considered volatile or subject to radical change. Borrell releases final estimates based on all 4 quarters of data at the beginning of the following year.
Projections are similar to estimates, but are based on partial-year data. They are more volatile than estimates, but less volatile than forecasts. Borrell releases three quarterly projections for each year.
Forecasts are based on little or no actual data. Every forecast is based on a set of assumptions that are used to weight and proportion the estimates. Forecasts are therefore quite volatile and great care should be exercised when using them.
All Borrell Associates revenue and spending figures are based on where and to whom advertising and marketing expenditures are directed. These can be geographic locations, consumers or specific categories of business. Therefore, a single media company's revenue can be attributed to several media categories depending on the media services it offers.
Outside the Market or "National" expenditures are any marketing expenditures directed toward the market, but originating from businesses that have no locations inside that market. This includes national advertisers as well as small advertisers that happen to be located outside the borders of a given market.
Inside the market or "Local" expenditures are marketing expenditures directed toward the market being measured that originate from businesses that have a physical presence within that same market.
Local Ownership or "Local Local" expenditures are defined as marketing expenditures directed to the market originating from businesses with a physical presence in the market that are also owned and operated in that market. This is a sub-set of the "local" category.
Consumer advertising or marketing expenditures are dollars spent by businesses with the intent to reach individual consumers.
Business-to-Business advertising or marketing expenditures are dollars spent by businesses with the intent to reach other businesses.
Borrell Associates can provide market data reports that cover any configuration of counties - even non-contiguous - that a client wishes to examine. ZIP-Code-based market definitions may be available in some situations. Some typical geographic definitions:
Television Market Areas (TMAs) are the areas for the cable must-carry/retransmission consent election. (47 CFR § 76.55) - They are defined by the FCC as being equivelant to DMAs as defined by the 2000-2001 DMA Market and Demographic Rank Report, by Nielsen Media Research. According to Nielsen, DMA is "generally a group of counties in which the commercial TV stations in the Metro/Central area achieve the largest audience share." This market definition scheme has come to be used for many marketing and research purposes. DMAs usually - but not always - consist of several whole contiguous counties. The term DMA is a registered trademark of Nielsen Media Research Inc.
A Core Based Statistical Area is the official term for a functional region around an urban center of at least 10,000 people, based on standards published by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB.) The term "CBSA" refers to both metropolitan statistical areas and newly-created micropolitan areas collectively. Micro areas are based around Census Bureau-defined urban clusters of at least 10,000 and fewer than 50,000 people.
If specified criteria are met, adjacent metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas, in various combinations, become the components of a new set of areas called combined statistical areas (CSAs). Using Census Bureau data, the OMB compiles lists of CSAs. The combined areas retain their own designations as metropolitan or micropolitan statistical Note that CSAs represent multiple metropolitan or micropolitan areas that have a moderate degree of employment interchange. CSAs often represent regions with overlapping labor and media markets. The use of CSAs as a representation for a single metropolitan area is rarely appropriate within the larger combined statistical area. There are 126 CSAs defined by OMB as of December 2006.
A "Designated Market" is typically a selection of counties or ZIP Codes used to identify an area defined by an advertiser or media company for which the report is being produced.
Advertising expenditures in any newspaper listed in "Editor & Publisher", including weekday, weekly and biweekly publications.
Other Print includes ads in magazines, shoppers, penny savers, niche publications, etc. The category can be further defined as:
Directories include both trade and consumer directories distributed within the market. Examples include: "Yellow Pages", "Gold Pages", "Green Pages", "Silver Pages", The Thompson Directory and others.
Ads broadcast on any television platform. Subcategories include:
Cable TV includes ads appearing on cable channels both local and national. Satellite TV is included in this category.
Radio includes ads broadcast on any licensed radio station to the market measured, whether the station is within the market or not. Further defined as:
Out-of-Home includes any advertising viewed outside the home, such as billboards, public transportation, kiosks, electronic screens in grocery stores, and a growing variety of other platforms.
Formerly included in our Out-of-Home category, Cinema advertising includes ads that are shown in movie theaters prior to the movie as well as other theater-based advertising. Payments by studios to theaters for showing trailers ("coming attractions") are part of this category.
Direct Mail includes advertising and promotional materials sent by mail to individual households or businesses. Further defined as:
Online is defined as any online, software or computer-based or computer-generated advertising media. Subcategories include:
Telemarketing is defined direct telephone solicitations to consumers and businesses from within or outside the market measured.
Mobile Ad Spending is a subset of Online Ad spending that is measured separately Ad Spending directed to mobile devices irrespective of the format. This includes ads attached to text messages, mobile applications and mobile format WAPs. Mobile devices include cell phones, smartphones, PDAs, mobile game players, ereaders, and GPS devices. Borrell measures Mobile spending in two different ways - Method of Delivery and Ad or Message Format. The Ad Formats we use sync up to our standard online ad formats described above. Method of delivery formats are defined below:
The Following charts show how the ways we measure mobile spending overlap:
|Display||Paid Search||Streaming Audio||Streaming Video|
There is much more to marketing than advertising. Additional "non-advertising" expenses make up the bulk of marketing spending for many businesses.
Here are definitions of the "Non-Ad" categories that Borrell Associates currently estimates:
Promotions are a tactical tool used by product and brand managers with the primary goal of increasing short-term sales. It is said that advertising causes people to want to buy, and promotions cause people to want to buy now. This is an amorphous category that includes coupons, point of purchase, samples, promotional materials and sweepstakes. However, the biggest part of promotions involves cash - discounts, rebates, stocking fees, etc.
Online Promotions: Includes Online sponsorships, Promotional downloads, loyalty programs, games, sweepstakes, contests, couponing, discounts and rebates.
Ad Production covers expenditures to produce advertising, marketing materials or programming. It includes agency fees, photography, graphic design, video and film services, studio and equipment rentals, mailing list costs and fees for writers, artists, actors, designers and technicians.
These are expenditures associated with training salespeople to sell or market products and services by providing them with supporting materials and literature, and developing sales leads. Product brochures, price lists, and computerized presentations are included here.
This category of expenditures is associated with the placement of press releases, product announcements, interviews, and statements concerning a company, a product or a service in national or local media.
Online Public Relations: Mainly includes online news releases, white-papers and viral marketing campaign design.
Market Research helps businesses find the best ways to spend their marketing budgets or capture ad revenue. It includes the external cost of performing primary or secondary qualitative or quantitative market research, including the acquisition of systems, data bases and reference texts.